Environmental health is concerned with preventing disease, death and disability by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and promoting behavioral change. It focuses on the direct and indirect causes of diseases and injuries, and taps resources inside and outside the health care system to help improve health outcomes.
Poverty, Health and Environment
Environmental health risks can be grouped into two broad categories. Traditional hazards are related to poverty and the lack of development and mostly affect developing countries and poor people. Their impact exceeds that of modern health hazards by 10 times in Africa, 5 times in Asian countries (except for China), and 2.5 times in Latin America and Middle East. Water-related diseases caused by inadequate water supply and sanitation impose an especially large health burden in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific region. In India alone, over 700,000 children under 5 die annually from diarrhea. In Africa, malaria causes about 500,000 deaths annually. More than half of the world’s households use unprocessed solid fuels, particularly biomass (crop residues, wood, and dung) for cooking and heating in inefficient stoves without proper ventilation, exposing people—mainly poor women and children—to high levels of indoor air pollution(IAP). IAP causes about 2 million deaths in each year.
Modern hazards, caused by technological development, prevail in industrialized countries where exposure to traditional hazards is low. The contribution of modern environmental risks to the disease burden in most developing countries is similar to – and in quite a few countries, greater than – that in rich countries. Urban air pollution, for example, is highest in parts of China, India and some cities in Asia and Latin America. Poor people increasingly experience a “double burden” of traditional and modern environmental health risks. Their total burden of illness and death from all causes per million people is about twice that in rich countries, and the disease burden from environmental risks is 10 times greater.
Environmental Health and Child Survival
Worldwide, the top killers of children under five are acute respiratory infections (from indoor air pollution); diarrheal diseases (mostly from poor water, sanitation, and hygiene); and infectious diseases such as malaria. Children are especially susceptible to environmental factors that put them at risk of developing illness early in life. Malnutrition (the condition that occurs when body does not get enough nutrients) is an important contributor to child mortality—malnutrition and environmental infections are inextricably linked. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently concluded that about 50% of the consequences of malnutrition are in fact caused by inadequate water and sanitation provision and poor hygienic practices.
Poor Water and Sanitation Access
With 1.1 billion people lacking access to safe drinking water and 2.6 billion without adequate sanitation, the magnitude of the water and sanitation problem remains significant. Each year contaminated water and poor sanitation contribute to 5.4 billion cases of diarrhea worldwide and 1.6 million deaths, mostly among children under the age of five. Intestinal worms, which thrive in poor sanitary conditions, infect close to 90 percent of children in the developing world and, depending on the severity of the infection may lead to malnutrition, anemia, or stunted growth. About 6 million people are blind from trachoma, a disease caused by the lack of clean water combined with poor hygiene practices.
Indoor Air Pollution
Indoor air pollution—a much less publicized source of poor health—is responsible for more than 1.6 million deaths per year and for 2.7% of global burden of disease. It is estimated that half of the world’s population, mainly in developing countries, uses solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and space heating. Cooking and heating with such solid fuels on open fires or stoves without chimneys lead to indoor air pollution and subsequently, respiratory infections. Exposure to these health-damaging pollutants is particularly high among women and children in developing countries, who spend the most time inside the household. As many as half of the deaths attributable to indoor use of solid fuel are of children under the age of five.
Approximately 40% of the world’s people—mostly those living in the world’s poorest countries—are at risk from malaria. Malaria is an infectious disease spread by mosquitoes but caused by a single-celled parasite called Plasmodium. Every year, more than 200 million people become infected with malaria and about 430,000 die, with most cases and deaths found in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and parts of Europe are also affected. Pregnant women are especially at high risk of malaria. Non-immune pregnant women risk both acute and severe clinical disease, resulting in fetal loss in up to 60% of such women and maternal deaths in more than 10%, including a 50% mortality rate for those with severe disease. Semi-immune pregnant women with malaria infection risk severe anemia and impaired fetal growth, even if they show no signs of acute clinical disease. An estimated 10,000 women and 200,000 infants die annually as a result of malaria infection during pregnancy.
Emerging and re-emerging diseases have been defined as infectious diseases of humans whose occurrence during the past two decades has substantially increased or threatens to increase in the near future relative to populations affected, geographic distribution, or magnitude of impacts. Examples include Ebola virus, West Nile virus, Zika virus, sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1 influenza; swine and avian influenza (swine, bird flu), HIV, and a variety of other viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases.
A variety of environmental factors may contribute to re-emergence of a particular disease, including temperature, moisture, human food or animal feed sources, etc. Disease re-emergence may be caused by the coincidence of several of these environmental and/or social factors to allow optimal conditions for transmission of the disease.
Ebola, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus strains. Ebola can cause disease in humans and nonhuman primates. The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest in history (with over 28,000 cases and 11,302 deaths), affecting multiple countries in West Africa. There were a small number of cases reported in Nigeria and Mali and a single case reported in Senegal; however, these cases were contained, with no further spread in these countries.
The HIV/AIDS epidemic has spread with ferocious speed. Virtually unknown 20 years ago, HIV has infected more than 60 million people worldwide. Each day, approximately 14,000 new infections occur, more than half of them among young people below age 25. Over 95 percent of PLWHA (People Living With HIV/AIDS) are in low- and middle- income countries. More than 20 million have died from AIDS, over 3 million in 2002 alone. AIDS is now the leading cause of death in Sub-Saharan Africa and the fourth-biggest killer globally. The epidemic has cut life expectancy by more than 10 years in several nations.
It seems likely that a wide variety of infectious diseases have affected human populations for thousands of years emerging when the environmental, host, and agent conditions were favorable. Expanding human populations have increased the potential for transmission of infectious disease as a result of close human proximity and increased likelihood for humans to be in “the wrong place at the right time” for disease to occur (eg, natural disasters or political conflicts). Global travel increases the potential for a carrier of disease to transmit infection thousands of miles away in just a few hours, as evidenced by WHO precautions concerning international travel and health.
Environmental toxicology is the scientific study of the health effects associated with exposure to toxic chemicals (Table 1) occurring in the natural, work, and living environments. The term also describes the management of environmental toxins and toxicity, and the development of protections for humans and the environment.
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Routes of Exposure to Chemicals
In order to cause health problems, chemicals must enter your body. There are three main “routes of exposure,” or ways a chemical can get into your body.
- Breathing (inhalation): Breathing in chemical gases, mists, or dusts that are in the air.
- Skin or eye contact: Getting chemicals on the skin, or in the eyes. They can damage the skin, or be absorbed through the skin into the bloodstream.
- Swallowing (ingestion): This can happen when chemicals have spilled or settled onto food, beverages, cigarettes, beards, or hands.
Once chemicals have entered your body, some can move into your bloodstream and reach internal “target” organs, such as the lungs, liver, kidneys, or nervous system.
What Forms do Chemicals Take?
Chemical substances can take a variety of forms. They can be in the form of solids, liquids, dusts, vapors, gases, fibers, mists and fumes. The form a substance is in has a lot to do with how it gets into your body and what harm it can cause. A chemical can also change forms. For example, liquid solvents can evaporate and give off vapors that you can inhale. Sometimes chemicals are in a form that can’t be seen or smelled, so they can’t be easily detected.
What Health Effects Can Chemicals Cause?
An acute effect of a contaminant (The term “contaminant” means hazardous substances, pollutants, pollution, and chemicals) is one that occurs rapidly after exposure to a large amount of that substance. A chronic effect of a contaminant results from exposure to small amounts of a substance over a long period of time. In such a case, the effect may not be immediately obvious. Chronic effect are difficult to measure, as the effects may not be seen for years. Long-term exposure to cigarette smoking, low level radiation exposure, and moderate alcohol use are all thought to produce chronic effects.
For centuries, scientists have known that just about any substance is toxic in sufficient quantities. For example, small amounts of selenium are required by living organisms for proper functioning, but large amounts may cause cancer. The effect of a certain chemical on an individual depends on the dose (amount) of the chemical. This relationship is often illustrated by a dose-response curve which shows the relationship between dose and the response of the individual. Lethal doses in humans have been determined for many substances from information gathered from records of homicides, accidental poisonings, and testing on animals.
A dose that is lethal to 50% of a population of test animals is called the lethal dose-50% or LD-50. Determination of the LD-50 is required for new synthetic chemicals in order to give a measure of their toxicity. A dose that causes 50% of a population to exhibit any significant response (e.g., hair loss, stunted development) is referred to as the effective dose-50% or ED-50. Some toxins have a threshold amount below which there is no apparent effect on the exposed population.
- Some toxicants can be excreted or metabolized, but fat-soluble toxicants (e.g. heavy metals) are stored in fatty tissues
- Bioaccumulation: toxicants build up in animal tissues
- Biomagnification: toxicants concentrate in top predators
- The result of biomagnifications include:
- Near extinction of peregrine falcons, bald eagles, and brown pelicans
- High PCB levels in polar bears
- Mercury in humans from fish consumption (mercury is released into the environment from various sources e.g. from mines, burning of fossil fuels)
- Figure on the right shows bioaccumulation of PCBs and mercury
- PCB or Polychlorinated biphenyls is used in coolants, paints, cements, PVC plastic etc.
The contamination of the air, water, or soil with potentially harmful substances can affect any person or community. Contaminants (Table 2) are often chemicals found in the environment in amounts higher than what would be there naturally. We can be exposed to these contaminants from a variety of residential, commercial, and industrial sources. Sometimes harmful environmental contaminants occur biologically, such as mold or a toxic algae bloom.
|Carcinogen||An agent which may produce cancer (uncontrolled cell growth), either by itself or in conjunction with another substance. Examples include formaldehyde, asbestos, radon, vinyl chloride, and tobacco.|
A substance which can cause physical defects in a developing embryo. Examples include alcohol and cigarette smoke.
|Mutagen||A material that induces genetic changes (mutations) in the DNA. Examples include radioactive substances, x-rays and ultraviolet radiation.|
|Neurotoxicant||A substance that can cause an adverse effect on the chemistry, structure or function of the nervous system. Examples include lead and mercury.|
|A chemical that may interfere with the body’s endocrine (hormonal) system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in both humans and wildlife. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and other pesticides, and plasticizers such as bisphenol A (BPA).|
An Overview of Some Common Contaminants
Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is normally present throughout our environment in water, soil, dust, air, and food. Levels of arsenic can regionally vary due to farming and industrial activity as well as natural geological processes. The arsenic from farming and smelting tends to bind strongly to soil and is expected to remain near the surface of the land for hundreds of years as a long-term source of exposure. Wood that has been treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is commonly found in decks and railing in existing homes and outdoor structures such as playground equipment. Some underground aquifers are located in rock or soil that has naturally high arsenic content.
Most arsenic gets into the body through ingestion of food or water. Arsenic in drinking water is a problem in many countries around the world, including Bangladesh, Chile, China, Vietnam, Taiwan, India, and the United States. Arsenic may also be found in foods, including rice and some fish, where it is present due to uptake from soil and water. It can also enter the body by breathing dust containing arsenic. Researchers are finding that arsenic, even at low levels, can interfere with the body’s endocrine system. Arsenic is also a known human carcinogen associated with skin, lung, bladder, kidney, and liver cancer.
Mercury is a naturally occurring metal, a useful chemical in some products, and a potential health risk. Mercury exists in several forms; the types people are usually exposed to are methylmercury and elemental mercury. Elemental mercury at room temperature is a shiny, silver-white liquid which can produce a harmful odorless vapor. Methylmercury, an organic compound, can build up in the bodies of long-living, predatory fish. To keep mercury out of the fish we eat and the air we breathe, it’s important to take mercury-containing products to a hazardous waste facility for disposal. Common products sold today that contain small amounts of mercury include fluorescent lights and button-cell batteries.
Although fish and shellfish have many nutritional benefits, consuming large quantities of fish increases a person’s exposure to mercury. Pregnant women who eat fish high in mercury on a regular basis run the risk of permanently damaging their developing fetuses. Children born to these mothers may exhibit motor difficulties, sensory problems and cognitive deficits. Figure 1 identifies the typical (average) amounts of mercury in commonly consumed commercial and sport-caught fish.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical synthesized in large quantities for use primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics have many applications including use in some food and drink packaging, e.g., water and infant bottles, compact discs, impact-resistant safety equipment, and medical devices. Epoxy resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. Some dental sealants and composites may also contribute to BPA exposure. The primary source of exposure to BPA for most people is through the diet. Bisphenol A can leach into food from the protective internal epoxy resin coatings of canned foods and from consumer products such as polycarbonate tableware, food storage containers, water bottles, and baby bottles. The degree to which BPA leaches from polycarbonate bottles into liquid may depend more on the temperature of the liquid or bottle, than the age of the container. BPA can also be found in breast milk.
What can I do to prevent exposure to BPA?
Some animal studies suggest that infants and children may be the most vulnerable to the effects of BPA. Parents and caregivers, can make the personal choice to reduce exposures of their infants and children to BPA:
- Don’t microwave polycarbonate plastic food containers. Polycarbonate is strong and durable, but over time it may break down from over use at high temperatures.
- Plastic containers have recycle codes on the bottom. Some, but not all, plastics that are marked with recycle codes 3 or 7 may be made with BPA.
- Reduce your use of canned foods.
- When possible, opt for glass, porcelain or stainless steel containers, particularly for hot food or liquids.
- Use baby bottles that are BPA free.
Phthalates are a group of synthetic chemicals used to soften and increase the flexibility of plastic and vinyl. Polyvinyl chloride is made softer and more flexible by the addition of phthalates. Phthalates are used in hundreds of consumer products. Phthalates are used in cosmetics and personal care products, including perfume, hair spray, soap, shampoo, nail polish, and skin moisturizers. They are used in consumer products such as flexible plastic and vinyl toys, shower curtains, wallpaper, vinyl miniblinds, food packaging, and plastic wrap. Exposure to low levels of phthalates may come from eating food packaged in plastic that contains phthalates or breathing dust in rooms with vinyl miniblinds, wallpaper, or recently installed flooring that contain phthalates. We can be exposed to phthalates by drinking water that contains phthalates. Phthalates are suspected to be endocrine disruptors.
Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the rocks and soil of the earth’s crust. It is also produced from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, gasoline, and natural gas; mining; and manufacturing. Lead has no distinctive taste or smell. The chemical symbol for elemental lead is Pb. Lead is used to produce batteries, pipes, roofing, scientific electronic equipment, military tracking systems, medical devices, and products to shield X-rays and nuclear radiation. It is used in ceramic glazes and crystal glassware. Because of health concerns, lead and lead compounds were banned from house paint in 1978; from solder used on water pipes in 1986; from gasoline in 1995; from solder used on food cans in 1996; and from tin-coated foil on wine bottles in 1996. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has set a limit on the amount of lead that can be used in ceramics.
Lead and lead compounds are listed as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen”. It can affect almost every organ and system in your body. It can be equally harmful if breathed or swallowed. The part of the body most sensitive to lead exposure is the central nervous system, especially in children, who are more vulnerable to lead poisoning than adults. A child who swallows large amounts of lead can develop brain damage that can cause convulsions and death; the child can also develop blood anemia, kidney damage, colic, and muscle weakness. Repeated low levels of exposure to lead can alter a child’s normal mental and physical growth and result in learning or behavioral problems. Exposure to high levels of lead for pregnant women can cause miscarriage, premature births, and smaller babies. Repeated or chronic exposure can cause lead to accumulate in your body, leading to lead poisoning.
Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable gas or liquid that has a pungent, suffocating odor. It is a volatile organic compound, which is an organic compound that easily becomes a vapor or gas. It is also naturally produced in small, harmless amounts in the human body. The primary way we can be exposed to formaldehyde is by breathing air containing it. Releases of formaldehyde into the air occur from industries using or manufacturing formaldehyde, wood products (such as particle-board, plywood, and furniture), automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, paints and varnishes, and carpets and permanent press fabrics. Nail polish, and commercially applied floor finish emit formaldehyde.
In general, indoor environments consistently have higher concentrations than outdoor environments, because many building materials, consumer products, and fabrics emit formaldehyde. Levels of formaldehyde measured in indoor air range from 0.02–4 parts per million (ppm). Formaldehyde levels in outdoor air range from 0.001 to 0.02 ppm in urban areas.
Radiation is energy given off by atoms and is all around us. We are exposed to radiation every day from natural sources like soil, rocks, and the sun. We are also exposed to radiation from man-made sources like medical X-rays and smoke detectors. We’re even exposed to low levels of radiation on cross-country flights, from watching television, and even from some construction materials. You cannot see, smell or taste radiation. Some types of radioactive materials are more dangerous than others. So it’s important to carefully manage radiation and radioactive substances to protect health and the environment.
Radon is a radioactive gas that is naturally-occurring, colorless, and odorless. It comes from the natural decay of uranium or thorium found in nearly all soils. It typically moves up through the ground and into the home through cracks in floors, walls and foundations. It can also be released from building materials or from well water. Radon breaks down quickly, giving off radioactive particles. Long-term exposure to these particles can lead to lung cancer. Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the second leading cause behind smoking.