Equity Literacy Project


A scientific anatomical human figure with transparent skin revealing its skeletal and nervous system shown torso up from a low angle. The figure stands off-center right while both arms are raised and head facing left. The word Religion in white transparent text and a bold white outline is positioned top left and ends within the figures raised arms. The background is sterile clean while showing geometric rectangular ceiling panel lighting.INTRODUCTION

Contributor: Simona Bonica

Religion is a complex subject that embodies multiple definitions based on different cultural and societal implications. Religion challenges an individual to pursue higher purposes and callings that drive one to live beyond physiological needs. While the practices of each religion vary, the common thread that runs through world religion is a sense of community, a guide for morality, and a purpose that attributes to an individual’s sense of self. Because of this, religion comprises a significant part of an individual’s higher needs as they strive towards self-actualization.

In the United States, 70.6% of the population consists of different denominations of Christianity while other religions including Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu make up 5.9%. And other world religions (0.3%). Religious “nones” make up 22.8% of the population (Religious Landscape Study 2021). Because the majority of individuals identify with a specific religion, schools must prioritize the fostering of inclusive communities for their diverse student bodies. Teachers must be responsible for educating themselves and removing any religious bias and stereotypes in order to create a safe learning environment. In order to maintain a safe and conducive learning environment, teachers must also foster a classroom culture that is tolerant and understanding and in which students are responsible for treating each other with mutual respect. This way, students’ chances for success in the classroom are increased, their interpersonal skills are sharpened, and they are better prepared for future encounters with diverse communities.

In addition to the classroom setting, staff and administrators must ask themselves what they can do to best accommodate students of varying religions to ensure they are best provided for. Some things to consider include: (i) partial or full absences from classes due to religious holidays or obligations; (ii) modifications to school uniforms or dress codes; (iii) and students’ medical histories. As accommodations are made for each respective student, religious equity is achieved, and students are given the necessary tools to succeed academically.[1]

Student Voices

Contributor: Sara Shareef, former Harper College Student

Bio: My name is Sara Shareef, and I’m a Junior at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), pursuing a major in secondary teaching of English. I come from an Indian/Muslim family that’s deeply rooted in family values. My parents migrated to America with the hope of the American dream in their hearts and a bright future for their kids in mind. Being born and raised here, my siblings and I have had the opportunity of becoming a unique part of the diverse culture that distinguishes us as Muslim Americans. Through my education and unique experiences, I aspire to be a teacher and mentor to the youth. I attended school in the Harper district and contributed this piece in Fall of 2019.

The Need for Education and Empowerment to Battle Religious Discrimination

Some may consider America the melting pot; the country where people of all races, religions, and cultures come and unite as one. However, in many cases, along with all this diversity we encounter, comes a lot of discrimination and prejudice. Throughout the history of America, many minority groups have been discriminated against and treated poorly. Whether it be the segregation of African Americans in the 1900s or unjust acts towards the Japanese people during the 1940s, America has had a dark past of prejudice toward minority groups. After the horrific 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York, many Muslim Americans were stereotyped as “terrorists” or unsafe to the community. Due to these labels, Muslims around the country faced bullying or discrimination in public places and schools. While most instances of badgering happened covertly, not much action was taken to battle them in schools. Over the years, many hate crimes have elevated towards Muslims. My friends and I have been called hurtful names in the past during my middle school and high school experience. Similarly, my family members have been impacted tremendously due to prejudice against Muslims over the years.

My parents migrated to America in their late 20s to start a new chapter of their lives, and years later I was born and raised in America. I was born in the year 2001, so I have no memory of 9/11. Growing up, however, I always heard things about terrorism in the news and my parents would talk about people getting deported back to their native countries because they were associated with terrorism. Going out with my father who dressed and still dresses according to Muslim culture, I could always feel people staring at us or giving us weird looks. There have been many times my father has gone out to get groceries or run errands when people have yelled slurs like “terrorist” or “Osama” as they drove past him, or they would laugh and make fun of the way my father dressed. These rude comments made me feel uncomfortable and embarrassed of my own father whenever he came to my school events because I always felt as if he stuck out like a sore thumb. My mother and my sister wore the hijab, which is a head covering most but not all Muslim women wear. My sister mentioned she had also heard some of her classmates make rude remarks to her in school, and it really hurt her emotionally knowing she had peers who belittled her because of her beliefs and the way she chose to dress. As I got older, though, I felt more comfortable with my religion and I learned how to deal with these negative remarks and attitudes.

Besides my family members getting discriminated against due to religion in school and other public areas, a lot of my other Muslim friends I went to the mosque with have also experienced hateful acts against them in their school environments. One of my family friends who I grew up with started wearing hijab to school at a young age. She lived closer to southern Illinois and the neighborhood she grew up in was a very conservative, white neighborhood. During her years in school, she heard peers make hateful remarks at her and many taunted her for being Muslim. She got bullied quite often and never told her family when it happened because she was scared it would make the situation worse. One day she was walking down the hall to go to her next class, and one of her classmates came and yanked off her hijab. She was devastated and humiliated in front of her other classmates and emotionally scarred. She went to the principal and explained the incident and only then did her family finally find out about all the other bullying. That was when her parents stepped in to help her and she started getting homeschooled the next year. The school might have resolved the problem, but they had failed to teach the students to respect one another, regardless of race or religion. Although this is just one of the many cases of someone yanking off a Muslim woman’s hijab, this hit me hard because she was a close family friend of mine and I never really thought a classmate could do such a hateful act towards another person. It really made me fear wearing the hijab and going to school. I wondered if I would be safe from these types of acts and could fit in with my peers if I decided to do something so simple as cover my hair.

Seeing my family and friends go through these types of concerning events really made me question if I was ever going to wear a hijab to school and out in public. I was aware that there were many people I  was surrounded by that would accept me for who I am if I wore the hijab, but I also knew that there were people who might treat me like an outcast. I had really wanted to wear it, but I was so scared of not fitting in and possibly being bullied for it in school. I thought about it long and hard and before I started middle school I decided I wanted to wear the hijab to school and out in public. I was scared of what others would think of me at school, and I was young so I really wanted to fit in. My biggest concern at that stage in life was to be a normal kid just like any other 6th grader. When I first started wearing the hijab things were fine; I didn’t have many friends but no one ever harassed me at school. As I got closer to high school, I started hearing kids in my grades say offensive slurs to me as I walked by in the halls. Then, in high school, every now and then I heard some of the same slurs and classmates would mock my religion. I had also been bullied in front of a teacher once and all he did was tell the kid to stop what he was doing and the kid had no consequences for his hurtful actions. I was hurt and shocked that someone could so easily get away with treating another person that way, especially in front of a teacher, someone we all trust. It hurt emotionally and left me confused. At first, I never knew how to react, so most of the time I really never said anything, especially at the beginning of high school. As I got older and more mature and gained some self-confidence, I learned to keep my emotions at bay and how to cope with people who belittled or made me feel any less than them.

Although over the years Islamophobia has gone up, many other Americans have come to learn that Islam and the Muslim community have no belief in acts of hatred or terrorism toward other groups. Many more have become aware of the actual teachings of the religion, but those who are misinformed with false information about Islam and Muslims, still discriminate and are prejudiced towards Muslims, which negatively impacts society as a whole. These acts of hatred done by one classmate to another not only hurt the victim but the foundation of the community. It builds walls between different groups, and instead of coexisting and being able to identify as the melting pot, American society is being separated by hateful speech and actions. These acts of hatred have been going on in schools for a long time, and school administrations as well as American citizens need to become more aware of them. By learning about different religions and communities, those in power need to educate and empower the youth about accepting differences and battling prejudice.


Contributor: J.T., Harper College, Fall 2019

My Experiences as “Jack the Jew” in School

“Hey, Jew!” “My name is still Jack.” is a short yet negative conversation I have had countless times. Anti-Semitism is the discrimination of a person because they are of the Jewish faith and people find it okay to make fun of people for that. When I was in second grade I would say I experienced my first real act of Anti-Semitism. It was around winter break and I was sitting in the cafeteria with my friends during the all-school sing right before we were dismissed for the break. After “Rudolf, Here Comes Santa Claus,” and “You Better Watch Out,” the music teacher announced on the microphone, “And now for a Hanukkah song!” I watched the whole table turn towards me at the same time and just stare. Little second-grade me didn’t know what to do so I just sang. The more I think back on it, the more I realize all the small things that my friends did without even realizing. “But do you eat pork?” comes to mind the most frequently. Acts towards me stayed at that level until sixth grade, middle school. All new kids and a whole new building, but the same Anti-Semitism. I’d get introduced to new people with, “Yeah this is Jack, the Jew.” Which would be followed by some sort of ridiculous question about Judaism. In my English class, there were these two boys who would go to high-five me but would be doing the nazi salute. These same boys would make comments about ovens and the holocaust at any given chance. This issue didn’t get addressed until late in the third quarter of sixth grade. There was no punishment or discipline, they just didn’t talk to me for the rest of middle school. In sixth grade, I was also asked if I practice Jewishism which is just a blatant lack of knowledge. It only got worse from there. In high school, I tried to keep it extremely unknown that I’m a Jewish kid. That didn’t last. D214 gives the Jewish holidays off in September and the day before and after each of those days, random kids would come up and thank me for the day off. I have nothing to do with the way the district plans its days off. I have nothing to do with when the days happen. The Jewish calendar is very different from the calendar the rest of the world uses. Completely different students would do the same high-five thing and I felt that since nearly nothing was done in middle school, why tell anyone anything in high school? My name stopped being Jack somewhere in the middle of freshman year and didn’t stop until the end of junior year. When I came back to senior year I was Jack again which made the last year of high school a bit less horrible. Senior year is when it all died down. Despite Jack being my first name again, I will always carry these experiences with me for my whole life. They have shaped who I am as a person and will continue to affect me. I, sadly, have my moments where I have hated being Jewish. I don’t want anyone else to experience my experiences.


Contributor: Z.U., Harper College, Summer 2020

Discrimination Against Muslims in School Structures and Policies

A major issue in the Western world is the hatred and antagonistic sentiments towards the religion of Islam and the Muslim people. As a Muslim growing up in America I have seen and dealt with these attitudes and tendencies and always wondered why Islam was a topic of much controversy and hate. With a further explanation and dive into my personal life and my take on the world growing up, perhaps this issue can be highlighted and investigated as to why such aggressive sentiments persist. This personal account will take a closer examination of my personal struggles growing up as a Muslim in America and the hardships I encountered in the pursuit of fulfilling my religion in daily life. The media’s outlook on Islam provides a basis for the Western masses to discriminate against Muslims and Islam. With many news conglomerates, articles, and journals being published, negative ideas and concepts about Islam are being cultivated and spread throughout the nation. With the constant voice of news channels such as Fox News and others filling the ears and heads of the populace with anti-Islamic rhetoric, negative sentiments, and hateful attitudes fester in the public arena. Effectively, the anti-Islamic public opinion is carefully and thoughtfully formed as these media outlets perpetually twist Islamic teachings and the religion’s culture. Not only do news mediums fuel such sentiments but so do film and Hollywood aid in pushing the agenda. Cinema is crucial in forming public opinion and directing the thoughts of the masses as film and visuals penetrate the subconscious. I was born in 2001, only months prior to 9/11. Growing up in a post-9/11 climate I always dealt with jokes against my religion from my peers. As I knew these statements were merely jokes and were for entertainment purposes, you could not deny the fact that there were some ideas and concepts solidified within these kids, especially at such a young age as elementary school. These jokes eventually evolved into stereotypes and Muslim kids would then be categorized into groups in which it was easier to target and make jokes about.

Growing up all the schools I attended were predominantly white, so the cultural shock was immense. The cultural gap between my religion and my friends made it a struggle to network and attain friendships. With the popular anti-Islamic attitudes already established subconsciously in many of my peers’ heads, the notion of getting along was already a task worthy to take on. I recount my elementary school days in which I remember the teacher would favor the popular kids in class by calling on them,  choosing them for various tasks, or simply just acknowledging them even more. These popular kids more often than not were all white and the teachers likewise. Since I was a child, I recognized a difference between me and others, my Arabic name would deter teachers from calling on me, and this cultural difference was clear. It was another reminder of the feeling of being strange and different. School dances and other social events were also a big cultural division. By not attending these events I was sort of a social outcast. In Islam, it is taught that men and women should not mix in anything other spaces other than public settings to avoid any slippery slopes. The pressure to attend these social events throughout junior high and high school was strong. I had two options, sacrifice the principles that I stood for and attend the dances or choose to be an outcast and not go to them. Ultimately, I decided to stick up for what I stood for, to abide by my religion, to not attend what everyone else was attending, and like that, I became a shadow in the school. I had a very small friend group and a few circles I was a part of.

In 2001, around the 9/11 incident, my father was the victim of a lot of hate. My father primarily worked and operated in Chicago as a limousine driver and would interact with many people throughout the day. His name is Muhammad and many of his Muslim friends and coworkers would coerce him into changing his name to Mo as they did themselves. My father refused and later told me that he would be sacrificing what he stood for, he would be changing his own identity for the sake of fitting and not rocking the boat. Even as all his peers did, he never fell for the pressure of change and stood steadfast. In retrospect, this provided me with a guide while I was growing up struggling with my own identity as a Muslim. In Islam, there are certain obligations for a man and woman to fulfill. Obligations such as partaking in fasting for one month, void of food and water from sunrise to sunset. Other obligations such as five daily prayers and a congregation prayer every Friday. These obligations and culture are alien to the American lifestyle and norms, thus making fulfilling them very difficult. Fulfilling our obligations came with strange looks and gazing stares, as hard as it was carrying them out in our daily lives, I always knew what had to be done. Facing these stares and gawks head-on, I continued to perform my obligations. A hardship I encountered in pursuit of fulfilling my obligations in Islam was being deemed different. Similar to church service every Sunday morning in Christianity, Muslims have a Friday prayer in congregation. Unfortunately, these Friday prayers take place during American school time at around 1 o clock. In high school, I coordinated with a few of my friends, found an empty room, and proceeded with our prayers. The only room that was available to us was a dirty windowed corridor that construction workers would often pass through. Every time we would perform our prayers students would look and gawk at us. They would whisper things under their breaths as they passed by. It would make some of my friends uncomfortable and as a result, they would leave and not perform their prayers. Our group of seven or eight quickly came down to three or four. Daily prayers on the other hand was a different beast. As only a few attended the Friday prayers, I was usually left alone to pray the daily prayers by myself. Having to find a different room every day I managed to complete them. Missing out on some days but catching them on the other. Some teachers would not allow me to pray thinking it was some hoax or scheme to get out of class and waste time. Eventually, as I kept battling with the teachers, they would allow me to leave and fulfill them. Leaving and missing out on class time posed a bigger challenge than I expected. After getting permission to leave I usually missed about ten to fifteen minutes of instruction time. In those high school days, I took many AP classes and I would miss out on course content and other vital information.

The American school system is not set up flexibly to arrange a time for prayers, I had to accommodate and make things work out with the potential expense to my education. I remember leaving tests and quizzes blank or filling in randomly to go do what I needed to do. One of the biggest challenges I faced with my religion and school was establishing a platform for the Muslims in my school. Eventually, after coordinating with a few close friends we approached the school administration and requested an official platform in which we could facilitate daily prayers or our Friday prayers and other obligations more easily. Most importantly our activities were recognized by the administration and they would help us carry out our obligations. After formally establishing the group, the MSA or Muslim Student Association, we then hosted multiple open sessions which anyone could attend and opened the floor up for questions and answers. We would clear up misconceptions about Islam and answer various questions students had. Through this personal account, I took a closer examination of my personal struggles growing up as a Muslim in America and the hardships I encountered in the pursuit of fulfilling my religion in daily life. The hatred Muslims get is absolutely unjust but is rather interesting as this religion is based on peace and justice for not only the people of the religion but for humanity. After reflecting on my experiences growing up, I realized that this religion is not a religion, after all, rather it is a way of life. Later on, I learned that this comprehensive system organizes the affairs of the people and the affairs of the state in a way that no other system does. Perhaps this is why Islam is the target of much controversy and hate in the Western world.




One’s belief in the existence of supernatural power, being, and/or other spiritual aspects. [2]

Ethnic/Religious Identity

Ethnic identity can be a connection to a racial and/or cultural group; religious identity is a connection to a religious group and is not necessarily the same. [3]


The state of being subject to unjust treatment or control. [4]


A program or campaign to exterminate, drive away or subjugate others based on their membership in a religious, ethnic, social, or ethnic group. [5]


A person forced to flee their country because of violence or persecution. [6]


A personal set or institutionalized system of religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices. [7]

Religious Text

Religious texts are those sacred and central to the teachings of almost every given religion. They are significant as these texts convey spiritual truth, establish a connection with the divine, foster communal identity, and provide the promotion of mystical experiences and spiritual practices.[8]


Order of words or series of ceremonial acts repeated. [9]

Separation of Church & State

“the act or state of keeping government and religion separate from each other. [10]


Being concerned with the spiritual, religious side, and purpose of life. [11]


The Hebrew term for the Holocaust.


The blending of faith, cultures, customs, and ideas.[12]


The effort to create and support a Jewish state. In the 20th and 21st centuries, Israel is the only Jewish state globally.

Types of Belief


The belief that there is only one God. [13]


The belief and worship of more than one god. [14]



One who neither believes nor disbelieves in a god or religion. [15]


Disbelief in the existence of God or gods.[16]

Secular / Secularization

Not spiritual or religious/converting something from religious to secular. [17]



A general law, rule, principle, or criterion by which something is judged; a collection or list of sacred books accepted as genuine. [18] In education, we have a canon of texts and leaders in each field that are considered essential to schooling, so we need to expand the canon to include more diverse identities and perspectives to avoid cultural hegemony, or the cultural domination of a society by a ruling class which imposes or inculcates its own ideas, values, etc., through socializing institutions like schools, thereby ensuring acceptance of the status quo by other classes.


The doctrine that all facts and events exemplify natural laws. [19]


 “A particular principle, position, or policy taught or advocated as with religion or government.” [20]


A principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true.[21]



A quality of life that centers around Christ as part of all of an individual’s acts and thoughts.[22]


An evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one’s own culture. [23]


An individual’s belief that their religion is more important than others’ religions.



A constellation of anti-Jewish beliefs, policies, and actions by individuals, groups, and governments.


The unfair treatment of someone that benefits another. [24]


Deliberate action to destroy or kill a racial, social, ethnic, or religious group.

Hate Crimes

A criminal act against property, a person, or a group where the victim is intentionally targeted because of their actual or perceived race, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, disability, gender/gender identity, or ethnicity. [25]


Displaying fear, prejudice, or hostility against Islam or Muslims.


A violent attack on a religious or ethnic group, usually referring to an anti-Semitic attack on Jewish groups. [26]

Religious Persecution

Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs or affiliations or lack thereof.



Abstaining from food and/or drink as part of religious observance or ritualistic process. [27]

Religious Dress 

Attire that is worn during specific religious practices, rituals, or traditions. [28]

Religious Holidays

A day observed for a religious holiday.[29]

School Holidays

Building school schedules and activities around Christian holidays without consideration or recognition of other customs and traditions observed by students (example-Good Friday is commonly labeled as Reading Day to provide a day off that corresponds to a Christian holiday without labeling it as such).






Eliade, Mircea. The Eliade Guide to World Religions. San Francisco, Harper, 1991.

Keller, Timothy. Timothy Keller – The Reason for God: Belief in an Age of Skepticism. Zondervan, 2021.

Lewis, C. Mere Christianity. Granite Publishers, Inc, 2021.

Matthews, Alfred Warren. World Religions. Australia, Cengage Learning Wadsworth, 2013.

Neusner, Jacob. World Religions in America. Westminster, John Knox, 2009.



The Journal of Religion 1921-2015, vol. 1, no. 4, 2015, University of Chicago Press. www.journals.uchicago.edu/toc/jr/current.


Films by religious classifications

Gilbert, Brian, director. Not Without My Daughter. MGM, 1991.

Winger, Anna, writer. Unorthodox, 2020.



Annaud, Jean-Jacques, director. Seven Years in Tibet. Sony Pictures, 1987. This is an inspirational true story about the lives and friendship of the Dalai Lama and Heinrich Harrer, a mountain climber.


Millar, David, director. The Great Religions – Hinduism, 1962. This short documentary presents the spiritual teachings, customs, and lives of families in India and Nepal.


Collier, James F., director. Joni. World Wide Pictures, 1980. This true story is based on Joni Eareckson’s life that changed in a split second when she broke her neck and became paralyzed. This inspirational film portrays the power of faith and determination to overcome the impossible. Joni’s story has impacted millions of lives across the world.

Jenkins, Dallas. The Chosen. Loaves & Fishes Productions, 2019. This TV series translated in over 50 languages offers a multi-dimensional approach to the characters of the New Testament within the cultural and historical aspects of the times.


Gardner, Robert, director. Empire of Faith. PBS, 2000. This documentary series looks at the history of Islam.

Gilbert, Brian, director. Not Without My Daughter. MGM, 1991.


DeMille, Cecil, director. The Ten Commandments. Paramount Pictures 1956.- This award-winning film is based on the book of Hebrews’ Exodus that follows Moses’ life as he is chosen to deliver the Jewish people from the bondage of Egyptian slavery.


Investiture of the Gods (series), 2007 & 2009. This fantasy TV series explores concepts of Taoism.


Teaching Religious Literacy

A magazine that promotes the value of teaching religious literacy and is brought from the perspective of two scholars, one who is a religious literary specialist and the other a director of education and curriculum reform at the Hindu American Foundation. (https://www.learningforjustice.org)



Moore, Diane,  Kerby, Lauren. Religion in Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States. Oxford University Press, 2018. https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com


A Teacher’s Guide to Religion in the Public Schools.



Council on American Islamic Relations. (2018). 2018 Civil Rights Report Targeted. In Islamophobia Reports. Retrieved from http://islamophobia.org/reports/224-2018-civil-rights-report-targeted.html

Cudd, A. E. (2013). Oppression. In B. Kaldis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of philosophy and the social sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/topic/oppression?institutionId=3252

Cullerton, A. (2014). Migration. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/rowmandasj/migration/0?institutionId=3252

Driver, A. (2018). See the Migrant Caravan Arriving in Mexico City After Weeks on the Road. Time.Com, N.PAG. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=132991306&site=ehost-live

Duberman, A., (2018, April 13). Here’s What One of America’s Most Isolated Communities Can Teach Us About Getting Along. Huffington Post. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/hutterites-rural-religious-photos_n_5accee42e4b0152082fe4005

Granada. (2018). In Helicon (Ed.), The Hutchinson unabridged encyclopedia with atlas and weather guide. Abington, UK: Helicon. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/topic/granada?institutionId=3252

Glazer, S. (2015, July 31). European migration crisis. CQ Researcher, 25, 649-672. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/

Isolate. (2016). In Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries (Ed.), The American Heritage (R) Dictionary of the English language(6th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmdictenglang/isolate/0?institutionId=3252

Leon, L. D. (1999). Metaphor and place: The U.S.-Mexico border as center and periphery in the interpretation of. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 67(3), 541. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/67.3.541

Levin, B. (2017, July 21). Islamophobia in America, rise in hate crimes against Muslims shows what politicians say matters. Newsweek. Retrieved from https://www.newsweek.com/islamophobia-america-rise-hate-crimes-against-muslims-proves-what-politicians-640184

Native American religion today. (2004). In R. Newby (Ed.), The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American regional cultures: the rocky mountain region. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/abcarcrmr/native_american_religion_today/0?institutionId=3252

Oppression. (2011). In Merriam-Webster (Ed.), Merriam-Webster’s dictionary of law (2nd ed.). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/mwdlaw/oppression/0?institutionId=3252

Prothero, S. R.,(2018). Hutterites. In E. L. Queen, P. II, S. Stephen R., & J. Gardiner H. (Eds.), Facts on File library of American history: Encyclopedia of American religious history (4th ed.). New York, NY: Facts On File. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/fofr/hutterites/0?institutionId=3252

Queen, E. L. (2018). war and religion. In E. L. Queen, P. II, S. Stephen R., & J. Gardiner H. (Eds.), Facts on File library of American history: Encyclopedia of American religious history (4th ed.). New , NY: Facts On File. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/fofr/war_and_religion/0?institutionId=3252

Religion. (1999). In Merriam Webster’s Dictionary (10th ed.).

Rhett Miller, J. (2017, April 24). U.S. college campuses are a hotbed of anti-semitism. New York Post. Retrieved from https://nypost.com/2017/04/24/us-college-campuses-are-hotbed-of-anti-semitism/

Rogozen-Soltar, M. (2007). Al-Andalus in Andalusia: Negotiating Moorish History and Regional Identity in Southern Spain. Anthropological Quarterly, 80(3), 863-886. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30052728

Ryan, J. B. (2018). Native American religions. In S. Bronner (Ed.), Encyclopedia of American studies. MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/jhueas/native_american_religions/0?institutionId=3252

Shoaff, J. L. (2013). Borders. In P. L. Mason (Ed.), Encyclopedia of race and racism (2nd ed.). Farmington, MI: Gale. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/galerace/borders/0?institutionId=3252

The United Nations. (n.d.). Definitions Genocide. In United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/genocide.shtml 

Wilensky, U. (2017, February 26). The most hated people in the United States may not be who you think. Huffington Post. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/the-most-hated-people-in-_b_9327362

Westin, C. (2003). Migration. In G. Bolaffi, R. Bracalenti, P. Braham, & et. al., Dictionary of race, ethnicity & culture. London, UK: Sage UK. Retrieved from http://prox.harpercollege.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/sageukrace/migration/0?institutionId=3252

Wikipedia. (2020, February 21). Religious Text. In Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_text


  1. “Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics.” Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 9 Sept. 2020, www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/.
  2. “Definitions for Religious Beliefre·Li·Gious Be·Lief.” What Does Religious Belief Mean?,www.definitions.net/definition/religious%20belief.
  3. “Ethnic Identity Definition and Meaning: Collins English Dictionary.” Ethnic Identity Definition and Meaning | Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, www.collinsdictionary.com/us/dictionary/english/ethnic-identity.
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